An intuitive web interface for Treebanking.

Built by Alexander Gottlieb.


Pine uses Dependency Grammar.

Parent, Head - The word depended on by a child/daughter/descendent through a dependency relation.

Child, Daughter, Descendent = The dependent of a parent/head word.

Artificial Root = The topmost node of a dependency tree. This is not a word in the sentence but is simply drawn to respect the rule that every word must have exactly one parent. See the Universal Dependencies explanation

Root Descendent = The first word descending from the artificial root, usually a verb.

File Support

Pine supports uploading treebanks in the Universal Dependencies CoNLL-U format (.conllu).

When importing a treebank with partial or invalid sentences, some words may be altered to match the CoNLL-U specification. In particular:

  • any orphan words (words with no parent specified) are attached to the root descendent
  • if multiple words share the artificial root, the first is chosen as the root descendent and all others will descend from this

Multiword Tokens

Multiword tokens are not supported. If a file is imported that contains a multiword token, it will be imported as multiple ordinary words. In this example from Universal Dependencies: 'Vámonos' would be ignored, while 'vamos' and 'nos' would be imported as separate words.

1-2    vámonos   _
1      vamos     ir
2      nos       nosotros

Empty Nodes

Empty nodes (ellipsis) have limited support. They can be imported and exported but not viewed or edited with Pine. This means you may upload and edit a CoNLL-U file containing empty nodes and they will appear in the outputted CoNLL-U file when you come to export.

If you delete a word which precedes 1 or more empty nodes, the empty nodes will be deleted as well. To use an example from Universal Dependencies:

1      Sue       Sue
2      likes     like
3      coffee    coffee
4      and       and
5      Bill      Bill
5.1    likes     like
6      tea       tea

Deleting word 5 'Bill' will also delete empty node 5.1 'likes'.

Annotation Data

Pine currently has limited support for the following annotations: Features (FEATS), Enhanced Dependencies (DEPS), Miscellaneous (MISC). These fields will be imported and exported with existing CoNLL-U data but cannot be edited.

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